Ciba Foundation Symposium - The Frozen Cell by G.E.W., Wolstenholme

By G.E.W., Wolstenholme

Chapter 1 Chairman's commencing feedback (pages 1–3): Peter Mazur
Chapter 2 Polyhedral Clathrate Hydrates (pages 5–26): Irving M. Klotz
Chapter three actual alterations happening in Frozen ideas in the course of Rewarming and Melting (pages 27–50): B. J. Luyet
Chapter four The Exceeding of a minimal Tolerable telephone quantity in Hypertonic Suspension as a reason for Freezing harm (pages 51–67): Harold T. Meryman
Chapter five Interactions of Cooling fee, Warming cost and protecting Additive at the Survival of Frozen Mammalian Cells (pages 69–88): Peter Mazur, Stanley P. Leibo, John Farrant, E. H. Y. Chu, M. G. Hanna and L. H. Smith
Chapter 6 dying of Frozen Yeast during sluggish warming (pages 89–96): A. P. Mackenzie
Chapter 7 attainable Relationships among the actual homes of strategies and telephone harm in the course of Freezing (pages 97–129): J. Farrant and A. E. Woolgar
Chapter eight Mechanism of Haemolysis of Erythrocytes via Freezing, with distinctive connection with Freezing at Near?Zero Temperatures (pages 131–147): Tokio Nei
Chapter nine The position of Membrane Proteins in Freezing harm and Resistance (pages 149–174): J. Levitt and John Dear
Chapter 10 Proteins in a position to conserving Chloroplast Membranes opposed to Freezing (pages 175–188): U. Heber
Chapter eleven The low Temperature Denaturation of Chymotrypsinogen in Aqueous answer and in Frozen Aqueous answer (pages 189–212): John F. Brandts, Joan Fu and John H. Nordin
Chapter 12 The position of Peptides in fighting Freeze?Thaw harm (pages 213–233): J. D. Davies
Chapter thirteen Mechanisms of Freezing harm in Bacteriophage T4 (pages 235–250): Stanley P. Leibo and Peter Mazur
Chapter 14 The impact of Freezing and Rewarming on tom cat mind Tissue: An Electron Microscope examine (pages 251–269): H. A. D. Walder
Chapter 15 Ultrastructural and sensible alterations in tender Muscle linked to Freezing and Thawing (pages 271–293): C. A. Walter

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L U Y E T The fact that, at glycerol concentrations of from 20 to 50 per cent, the temperatures at which these three changes take place are independent of the concentration led Luyet and Rasmussen (1968) to the idea that it is the highly concentrated solutions in contact with the icc phase, not the 20 to 50 per cent solutions, which are responsible for the AM, IM and R changes. On that basis, the temperatures of incipient melting IM were plotted at the highest concentration at which ice is still formed and the points so determined fall on the prolongation of the melting curve (segment drawn in dashed line, Fig.

Huggins: Would you comment on the structure of glycerol or DMSO-ice ? Klotz: I think the glycerol of glycerol hydrate interacts directly with the water molecules around it (Jeffrey, 1969); the glycerol molecule is definitely not within an enclosure of the polyhedral clathrate type. My guess would be that DMSO too would form a hydrate of the glycerol class, with a direct interaction, rather than form a polyhedral clathrate hydrate, because DMSO is a very strong hydrogen bonder, as is glycerol, and I suspect that the direct hydrogen bond interactions are dominant.

The glass transformation involves a marked change in molecular mobility and in several physical properties. The quantity of material to undergo glass transformation and devitrification is not negligible, as often assumed. Melting of the ice phase is frequently observed far below the eutectic temperature. There is generally no eutectic freezing in the presence of cryoprotective agents. Recrystallization is characterized by noticeable changes in the size of the ice particles and of the channels of medium between the particles.

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