Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization by Oswald Steward, Paul Worley (auth.), Professor Dr. Dietmar

By Oswald Steward, Paul Worley (auth.), Professor Dr. Dietmar Richter (eds.)

Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein focusing on has lengthy been notion to represent the only determinant of mobile polarity and complexity. This view has been replaced, in spite of the fact that, by way of the invention of differential subcellular RNA distribution styles. over the last decade it has develop into transparent that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete mobile websites. during this e-book, quite a few structures are mentioned (e.g. Xenopus oocytes, mammalian mind, invertebrate fearful process) by way of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational law and the importance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal functionality and plasticity. It additionally discusses nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA and viral RNA as one other instance of subcellular RNA kinesis.

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1 Studies in Hippocampal Slices Initial evidence that synaptic activity might regulate dendritic protein synthesis came from autoradiographic studies of incorporation of labeled amino acids in hippocampal slices (Feig and Lipton 1993). Activation of the Schaffer collateral system (which terminates on the apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons), in conjunction with activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by carbachol, caused increased labeling for newly-synthesized protein in the activated dendritic laminae (stratum radiatum).

Science 276:2042-2045 Bear MF, Malenka RC (1994) Synaptic plasticity: LTP and LTD. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:389-399 Bliss TV, Lomo T (1973) Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. J Physiol (Lond) 232:331-356 Bliss TVP, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31-39 Bliss TVP, Goddard GV, Riives M (1983) Reduction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the rat following selective depletion of monoamines.

This study thus revealed a second mechanism through which CAMKII protein synthesis could be regulated at the synapse. It remains to be seen how this mechanism interacts with the mechanism suggested in the experiments by Sheetz et al. Taken together, this evidence suggests a complex regulation of the translation of mRNAs at synapses. Activation of particular neurotransmitter receptors appears to play a role in regulating translation, and both metabotropic and NMDA-type receptors have been implicated in this process.

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