By Ted G. Byrom
Once considered area of interest expertise, operators at the present time are using extra possibilities with casing and liners as formations and environments develop in trouble, specially with the novel oil and gasoline growth. Casing and liners for Drilling and Completions, second variation offers the engineer and good dressmaker with updated info on severe houses, mechanics, layout fundamentals and most modern functions for modern-day form of good. Renovated and simplified to hide operational concerns, strain so much, and choice steps, this guide promises the information to execute the fundamental and basic gains of casing and liners. Bonus positive aspects include:
- Additional thesaurus additional to provide an explanation for oil box terminology
- New appendix on important on a daily basis formulation corresponding to axial tension, shear tension in tubes and imperative pressure components
- Listing part of acronyms, notations, symbols and constants for speedy reference
- Concise step by step easy casing layout strategy with examples
- Thorough assurance and tips about vital box perform for install subject matters
- Advanced tools for serious and horizontal good casing layout together with hydraulic fracturing
- Exhaustive appendices on foundational themes: devices & nomenclature, stable mechanics, hydrostatics, borehole surroundings & rock mechanics, and a precis of beneficial formulation
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Additional info for Casing and Liners for Drilling and Completion, Second Edition: Design and Application
For many shallow wells with hard surface soils the conductor may be set at depths of 50 ft or so, sometimes 100 ft. On the other hand, in areas where the surface soils (or ocean bottom) are extremely soft it may be necessary to set the conductor 200-500 ft below the surface (or ocean bottom) just to drill the hole for the surface casing. There are some situations where the surface formations are so incompetent or problematic that two strings of conductor casing may be required. In other cases, the conductor casing is also a support structure for the well and must additionally support a small platform attached to the wellhead and some minimal amount of production equipment—not as uncommon as many might think, thousands of these type wells exist in shallow waters.
The ultimate strength value listed is the peak strength of the casing in a uniaxial test. In other words, the pipe body should not fail prior to that point. This value is based on tensile test samples and does not account for things like variations in wall thickness, pitting, and so forth. It is not really possible to predict actual failure strength, because there are too many variables, but this value essentially means that the casing should fail at some tensile value higher than the minimum. You should clearly understand that ultimate strength is not a material property, but is the point at which a uniaxial tensile test of a prismatic sample exhibits its highest value.
From the standpoint of drilling operations, our input into that process is to assess the risks and allow for alternatives. For example, if we know there are serious hole stability problems in an area and our drilling experience in the area is limited, we may be well advised to recommend a final size that is still large enough for us to set an extra string of casing or liner and still reach the objective with a usable size of hole for a good completion. This is a point that is unfortunately too often overlooked in the desire to keep well costs low.