Broadband Opto-Electrical Receivers in Standard CMOS (Analog by Carolien Hermans

By Carolien Hermans

This booklet opens with the fundamentals of the layout of opto-electronic interface circuits. The textual content maintains with an in-depth research of the photodiode, transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and proscribing amplifier (LA). to entirely describe mild detection mechanisms in silicon, first a one-dimensional and moment a two-dimensional version is constructed. All fabric is experimentally demonstrated with numerous CMOS implementations, with eventually an absolutely built-in Gbit/s optical receiver front-end together with photodiode, TIA and los angeles.

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Extra resources for Broadband Opto-Electrical Receivers in Standard CMOS (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)

Example text

Following device simulations, the overall intrinsic photodiode frequency response shows a slow decay starting in the low MHz range. The roll-off in the overall photocurrent response is only about 5 dB/decade for frequencies between roughly 10 MHz and the lower GHz range. So the signals from the photodiode are low bandwidth (MHz range) but still relatively strong at very high frequencies (GHz range). Therefore an analog equalizer is introduced that compensates (in gain and phase) for the diode photocurrent roll-off in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz.

On the other hand, the maximum run length is also determined by the length of the shift register: a 231 − 1 prbs pattern contains 31 consecutive ones or zeros. • Block coding. A group of bits is replaced by another, slightly larger group of bits, such that the average mark density becomes 50 % and DC balance is established. For example, in the 8B10B code, 8-bit groups are replaced with 10-bit patterns using a look-up table. 3 Binary Data Formats 1 2 3 n−1 Clock 19 Data out n Data in Fig. 5. An n-bit shift register for the generation of a 2n − 1 prbs pattern.

9(b), the output does not attain the upper or lower levels which define vpp at the end of every bit period. For two consecutive ones or zeros, it does, but for a single one followed by a single zero (or vice versa), it doesn’t. This is undesirable because the output voltage levels corresponding to ones and zeros vary with time, making it difficult to define a decision threshold VT H . For example, the levels at t = t1 and t = t2 are more susceptible to noise and can be misinterpreted by the detector.

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