By S.L. Crouch, A. M. Starfield
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Additional info for Boundary Element Methods in Solid Mechanics: With Applications in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering
1979) is designed to calculate one dip for each bed boundary. 7). These elements can be hierarchically superposed; for example, a small trough can be contained within a large peak. The program then correlates tops and bottoms of these elements in a hierarchical manner with prescribed rules and, if successful, it computes a dip. If poor planarity is observed but the elements correlate well, four dips for the four possible planes computations (in the case of the HDT) are output. This program honors several geological correlation principles, notably that larger elements (thicker beds) are correlated first and that the density of dips is a function of the layering.
There is also a nocrossing rule stipulating that correlations cannot cross each other even if they are of good quality. Pattern recognition results of dip meters are often displayed and interpreted together with cross-correlation results. For the oil-based mud dip meter tool OBDT, pattern recognition programs are only rarely applied because of the inherent lower resolution of the measurement. 3 Graphical Representations Dipmeter results consist of one dependent variable (depth) and two independent variables (dip and azimuth), which complicates the graphical representation.
The tool measures small induction currents in front of the pads. tools. , 1997). Borehole images can also be downgraded to dipmeters by extracting a few image columns and feeding them as dip meter curves into the automatic dip calculation programs. In oil-based mud, which is widely used in certain areas to provide better drilling performance and more stable holes, conventional dipmeters cannot be used because the borehole mud is not conductive. Protruding metal scratchers are sometimes mounted onto the dipmeter electrodes in order to establish a direct conductive path with the rock, but the method is relatively unreliable.