By Manji Husseini K., Robert H. Belmaker
Lithium, the therapy of selection for mania considering that its usefulness used to be first stated, has been proven to have different results on a number of organic structures, together with electrolyte flux and neurochemistry. contemporary advances in mobile and molecular biology promise to supply clinicians with a greater knowing of the etiology of bipolar sickness and new recommendations for therapy. Bipolar drugs: Mechanisms of motion offers the remedy and prophylaxis of bipolar affliction. greater than forty investigators proportion study and perception into the neurobiological mechanisms that aid to provide an explanation for the strong results of recent antibipolar medications. This entire textual content -Examines valproic acid, lamotrigine, inositol monophosphatase inhibitors, and protein kinase C inhibitors that experience the capability to revolutionize medical perform and supply new hypotheses at the etiology of bipolar disease -Presents the present realizing of the mobile mechanisms of motion of mood-stabilizing brokers -Discusses the emergence of valproate as a strong lithium replacement and examines the initial symptoms that lamotrigine might be an efficient choice -Examines the problem of withdrawal rebound, which may make lithium useless or perhaps counterproductive, and studies inositol monophosphatase inhibitors that mimic lithium motion in sufferers -Compares lithium, carbamazepine, and valproate and their differential mechanisms, that may shape the foundation of a "rational polypharmacy" of manic depressive disorder -Examines behavioral types very important within the screening of latest antibipolar compounds and the results of antibipolar compounds on instant early genes entire with vast references, tables, and figures, this article is vital studying for any clinician who treats sufferers with bipolar disease. It completely records the newest in psychopharmacology, in addition to projecting destiny advances within the therapy of bipolar disease.
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Additional info for Bipolar Medications: Mechanisms of Action
When this technique was applied to the study of the effects of lithium, it was shown that neither basal nor stimulated levels of InsP3 were affected by lithium treatment (Gur et al. 1996). Although these various data apparently argue against the inositol depletion hypothesis, it is nevertheless possible that lithium exerts its effects on specific neuronal populations. , neurons with a higher PI turnover will be more vulnerable to the inhibitory effects of lithium), or of selective lithium uptake mechanisms, or of susceptibility to inositol depletion (perhaps as a consequence of the lack of an appropriate inositol uptake mechanism; Gani et al.
Biol Psychiatry 39:461–462, 1996 Soares JC, Mallinger AG, Dippold CS, et al: Platelet membrane phospholipids in euthymic bipolar disorder patients: are they affected by lithium treatment? Biol Psychiatry 45:453–457, 1999 Stambolic V, Ruel L, Woodgett JR: Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity and mimics Wingless signalling in intact cells. Curr Biol 6:1664–1668, 1996 Steen VM, Gulbrandsen A-K, Eiken HG, et al: Lack of genetic variation in the coding region of the myo-inositol monophosphatase gene in lithium-treated patients with manic depressive illness.
Source. Tissue provided by Professor Elaine Perry, MRC Neurochemical Pathology Unit, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Lithium, Phosphatidylinositol Signaling, and Bipolar Disorder 15 the PI signaling pathway (and, indeed, other biochemical processes), the effects of lithium on PI signaling can be attributed solely to inhibition of IMPase. This issue has been addressed by using specific inhibitors of IMPase to see whether they can mimic the effects of lithium on the PI cycle, in which case the effects of lithium on PI signaling would be consistent with the primary mechanism of action being inhibition of IMPase.