Basic Principles of Textile Coloration by Arthur D. Broadbent

By Arthur D. Broadbent

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This involves proportionate increases in the actual volume occupied by the molecules, as they vibrate, and that of the voids between molecules in the amorphous zones and around the chain ends. These voids are called the polymer free volume. Molecular packing in the crystalline state is very compact and ordered so the free volume is a characteristic of the amorphous regions of a polymer.

The fabric is constructed row after row across the width of the material, or around in a circle, to form what is called a weft knit. When laid flat, circular knitted fabrics have two layers. The higher the number of loops (wales) and rows (courses) per unit distance, the greater the weight and rigidity of the material, the better its recovery after stretching, and the less it is likely to shrink. Knitting produces fabric much faster than weaving. Knitted materials are flexible, elastic and relatively crease resistant so that clothing made from them fits well.

Some of the processes that are used in the preparation of materials made from natural fibres are discussed below. Raw wool fibres may contain 30–50% of impurities including wool wax (often called grease), and inorganic salts (suint), as well as varying amounts of dirt, straw, excrement, and burrs. 3). Mild alkaline scouring of wool fabric before dyeing eliminates lubricating oil that was added to facilitate carding and spinning. Residues of vegetable material are often apparent in grey wool fabrics.

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