By Stewart M. Brooks
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Extra info for Basic Facts of Body Water and Ions
Although, as indicated, balanced solutions are useful in most situations-perhaps 80 to 90 percent of all patients-requiring fluid therapy, there are imbalances that cannot be adequately or safely treated in this fashion. These include renal impairment, adrenal insufficiency, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes insipidus, severe exhaustion, severe hypocalcemia, severe acidosis or alkalosis, and severe bums. In these conditions more specific measures are indicated-saline in heat exhaustion, calcium in hypocalcemia, and so on.
L. , is the chief anion. The average concentrations of HC0 3 - and HP0 4 = are 27 and 2, respectively. The total concentration of cation and total concentration of anion hover, in health, close to the value of 155 mEq/L. Intracellular electrolytes A comparison of Figures 9 and 10 shows the considerable difference between the extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, a difference which the physiologist and biochemist have still not been able to explain to everyone's satisfaction. Obviously, sodium and potassium pass across the cellular membrane (not as freely as water, of course).
The "1~-D" is used for patients without edema, and the "2~-D" and "7-D" for patients with moderate and severe edema, respectively.