By Arnold Robbins
During this quickly reference, you'll locate every thing you want to find out about the bash shell. no matter if you print it out or learn it at the reveal, this publication promises the solutions to the irritating questions that usually arise while you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you want to cite? How do you get variable substitution to just do what you will have? How do you employ arrays? It's additionally priceless for
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E Exit if a command yields a nonzero exit status. The ERR trap executes before the shell exits. -E Cause shell functions, command substitutions, and subshells to inherit the ERR trap. , * ? [ ]). -h Locate commands as they are deﬁned. On by default. See hash. → Built-in Commands 53 set ← -H Enable csh-style history substitution. On by default. -k Assignment of environment variables (var=value) takes effect regardless of where they appear on the command line. Normally, assignments must precede the command name.
Else commands3 ] fi If condition1 is met, do commands1; otherwise, if condition2 is met, do commands2; if neither is met, do commands3. Conditions are often speciﬁed with the test and [[ ]] commands. See test and [[ ]] for a full list of conditions, and see additional Examples under : and exit. Examples Insert a 0 before numbers less than 10: if [ $counter -lt 10 ] then number=0$counter else number=$counter fi → Built-in Commands 47 if ← jobs Make a directory if it doesn’t exist: if [ ! -d $dir ]; then mkdir $dir chmod 775 $dir fi jobs [options] [jobIDs] List all running or stopped jobs, or list those speciﬁed by jobIDs.
Condition1 -o condition2 True if either condition is true. condition1 || condition2 True if either condition is true. = "y" ] if [ ! -r "$1" -o ! -f "$1" ] While there are arguments... While there are nonempty arguments... If $count is less than 10... If the RCS directory exists... If the answer is not y... If the first argument is not a readable file or a regular file... Built-in Commands 59 time time command Execute command and print the total elapsed time, user time, and system time (in seconds).