By Jeffrey D. Sachs, Bokyeong Park, Wing Thye Woo, Naoyuki Yoshino (editors)
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Extra info for Asian Economic Papers. Volume 7, Issue 1, Winter 2008
Apparently the decision to introduce capital control was made by the National Economic Action Council on 6 August (Mahathir 1998), before the Krugman article appeared. Krugman subsequently stated in Singapore that, “It was a shock that while I was speculating idly about that [capital control], Dr. Mahathir was about to do it” (New Straits Times, 26 August 1999). See also Krugman (1999). 9 In a special brieªng to the press following the introduction of capital controls, the Special Function Minister, Zainuddin, stated that before introducing currency controls the Malaysian authorities studied systems operating in Chile, Slovenia and China, and decided to use the Chinese system as a model in designing the Malaysian controls (Star, 5 September 1998).
Proposed cuts in government expenditures were restored and a number of large projects that had been put on hold were reactivated. By mid 1998 ªscal policy turned out to be more expansionary to compensate for the slack in private sector demand. A National Economic Recovery Plan (NEAP) was launched on 23 July 1998 (NEAC 1998). It contained a comprehensive reform package encompassing signiªcant ªscal and monetary expansion, in a clear departure from the IMF-centered reform programs being implemented in the other crisis-hit countries in the region at the time.
G. Non-performing loans of commercial banks a. All growth rates on a year-on-year basis. b. Sectoral share in GDP in 1996 are given in brackets. c. my), IMF, International Financial Statistics, and MIER, Monthly Economic Monitor (various issues). External transactions Merchandise exports (US$, FOB, percent) Merchandise imports (US$, FOB, percent) Current account balance as percent of GDP Foreign reserves (US$ billion)e, h Total external debt as percent GDPe Short term foreign debt as percent of total debte Short-term foreign debt as percent of foreign reservese External debt service ratio Average exchange rate (ringgit per US$) Share market performance KLSE Composite index (1977 ϭ 100) Market capitalization (ringgit billion) percent of GDP Money and credit (end of period) M3 growth (percent) M3/GDP (percent) Average bank lending rated (percent) Bank credit to the private sector (1990 ϭ 100)e, f Non-performing loan (NPLs) percente, g Table 3.