By Frans H. van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst
This quantity provides a theoretical account of the matter of examining and comparing argumentative discourse. After putting argumentation in a communicative viewpoint, after which discussing the fallacies that happen while convinced principles of communique are violated, the authors supply an alternative choice to either the linguistically-inspired descriptive and logically-inspired normative ways to argumentation.
The authors symbolize argumentation as a fancy speech act in a severe dialogue geared toward resolving a distinction of opinion. a number of the phases of a severe dialogue are defined, and the communicative and interactional elements of the speech acts played in resolving an easy or complicated dispute are mentioned. After facing an important features of study and linking the overview of argumentative discourse to the research, the authors determine the fallacies that may take place at quite a few levels of dialogue. Their normal goal is to explain their very own pragma- dialectical point of view at the research and evaluate of argumentative discourse, bringing jointly pragmatic perception referring to speech acts and dialectical perception referring to severe discussion.
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Additional resources for Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies: A Pragma-dialectical Perspective
It is shown that the verbal moves that are traditionally known as fallacies can be regarded as specific violations of the rules for critical discussion. Our general aim in this book is to elucidate, on behalf of colleagues and interested students, our own pragma-dialectical perspective on the analysis and evaluation of argumentative discourse, which brings together pragmatic insight concerning speech acts and dialectical insight concerning critical discussion. Although we frequently refer to the literature, at this stage, we refrain from making detailed comparisons with other approaches.
Because the formulations that are chosen are usually not exactly the same each time, there is danger of the dispute being wrongly thought to be multiple. The standpoint that is at the center of the dispute is not always stated once and for all at the beginning. For the sake of clarity, or because he thinks this to be more effective, a discourser may restate his standpoint halfway through his discourse or even at the very end. Because standpoints can be expressed with more emphasis (“It is certainly true that …”) and with less emphasis (“It is plausible that …”), and because they may refer to propositions of greater scope (“All great artists are homosexuals”) or of lesser scope (“Some great artists are homosexuals), when repeating his standpoint, the speaker may avail himself of the opportunity to make it more or less emphatic, or more general or specific, than it originally was.
Thus, a theoretical framework is created that, if things work out well, can fulfill heuristic, analytical, and critical functions in dealing with argumentative discourse. In a rhetorical model, the argumentation techniques that are thought to be effective in view of the knowledge and beliefs of a certain audience are listed. 9 On account of dialecticians regarding every argument to be part of a critical discussion, whether explicit or implicit, their model provides rules that specify which moves, in the various stages of such a discussion, can contribute to resolving a difference of opinion.