By Remco J. Wiegerink
This booklet has its roots in an idea first formulated by way of Barrie Gilbert in 1975. He confirmed how bipolar analog circuits can observe nonlinear and computational services. This prolonged the analog paintings from linear to nonlinear functions, accordingly the identify trans linear circuits. not just did this new precept let marvellous sign processing features to be effectively applied, but in addition the circuits have been easy and useful. The perennial difficulties of analog Ie layout, specifically temperature sensitivity, processing unfold, gadget nonlinearity and paracitic capacitance have been solved to a wide volume. utilizing the trans linear precept in circuit layout calls for altering your standpoint in methods. First, the grossly nonlinear attribute of transistors is considered as an asset instead of as a dangerous estate. moment, now not are the signs represented by means of voltages, yet via currents. in truth, the attendant voltage alterations are distorted yet, as they're very small, they're merely of secondary curiosity. knowing and examining a given trans linear circuit in all fairness straight forward. yet what concerning the speak state of affairs: consider you are given a few nonlinear or computational functionality to enforce? how to define an appropriate translinear circuit attention? the final challenge of analog circuit synthesis is a tricky one and is receiving a lot recognition these days. a few years in the past, I had the chance to enquire tools for designing bipolar trans linear circuits. It became out that translinear networks have a few distinctive topological homes. utilizing those houses it used to be attainable to set up heuristic synthesis procedures.
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Extra info for Analysis and Synthesis of MOS Translinear Circuits
Comparing MOS translinear and bipolar translinear circuits It is interesting to compare the MTL and the BTL principles_ The latter is expressed by : (2-50) ew ccw with Ie the collector currents and A the emitter areas of the bipolar transistors comprising the TL loop_ The product relation of eqn_ (2-50) lends itself naturally to functions involving multiplication or division_ Systematic techniques for the analysis and synthesis of bipolar trans linear circuits have been developed _ The more peculiar MTL sum-of-roots relation (2-6) seems to be more suitable for synthesizing square-law functions_ Developing systematic analysis and synthesis techniques for MTL circuits is complicated because of the fact that the square root terms can only be eliminated from the loop equation in a small number of relatively simple circuits_ The loop equation of an MTL circuit often can not be solved analytically and a numerical approximation method IS necessary_ An important point of comparison is the expected quality of function implementation_ BTL circuits will be superior owing to the unprecedented law-conformance of bipolar transistors over wide ranges of current For MOS devices the current range of square-law behavior is much smaller.
This is illustrated in fig. 3-20. Now it is possible to open the translinear loop by turning off the extra transistors. The response of the circuit is then no longer defined by the translinear loop equation. An application is the minimum selector circuit shown in fig. 3-21 . For this circuit the loop equation is given by: (3-32) However, eqn. (3-32) is only valid if all transistors are conducting, in which case the output current Jout is equal to input current Iin2 .
3-14 the drain-source voltages ofM7 and M8 are significantly larger than the drain-source voltages of MI and M3. This causes the circuit to behave asymmetrical to positive and negative values of the input currents. Fig. 3-17 shows a circuit implementation based on an up-down loop topology. --4 l mm . :::~ , , -,~ L __ fig. 3-/7 The vector-sum circuit from fig. 3-/4 implemented in an up-down topology. Analysis of MOS translinear circuits 53 The circuit of fig. 3-14 and the circuit of fig. 3-17 were compared by means of SPICE simulations.