By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)
Biological keep watch over is one of the so much promising tools for keep an eye on of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this booklet ecological and societal features are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological procedure the purpose is to guage the importance of definite organic homes like biodiversity and typical habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming viewpoint. In a societal process phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are recognized as major for organic construction and human welfare.
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Additional info for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control
Kurppa, S. 1990. Inset pest damage, predicting and control in Finnish cereal cultivation during the 1980s. PhDdissertation, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland, ISBN 951-729-37-6, 1-53. Langewald, J. and Neuenschwander, P. 2002. Challenges in coordinating regional biological control projects in Africa: classical biological control versus augmentative biological control. Biocont. News Inform. 23: 101N-108N. G. & Coombs, J. (1994): Development in the market for biopesticides.
Principle of prevention Organic farming considers problems with pests, diseases or parasites as indicators of an inadequate management system. Therefore, the main challenge in organic production is to optimize the management system, including (but not restricted to) all measures by which the crops or animals become more healthy, or the living conditions for pests and diseases become less favourable. This approach called ‘indirect crop protection’ or ‘preventive animal-health management’ is typical for organic farming.
MAURER Biocontrol agents can be used as a next step. Many species of natural enemies have been released to control M. , 1974). Today, three biocontrol agents are commercially available in Europe: (i) in deep-litter systems, Bacillus thuringiensis can be applied to the breeding regions of the flies; (ii) the pteromalid pupal parasites Muscidifurax zaraptor and Nasonia vitripennis are commercially available for release in deep litter systems; (iii) in systems with slatted floors, larvae of Ophyra aenescens live predaceously on house fly larvae in the solid top layer of liquid manure.