Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory by Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

Over the final two decades there were lots of technical advances and alterations within the box of academic and mental trying out. in accordance with Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of surprising advances in ,psychological trying out. Technological growth, theoretical sophistication, and extending professional­ fessional accountability are all obtrusive within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental trying out, 6th variation. long island: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in subject matters akin to merchandise reaction idea, criterion-referenced dimension, generalizability theory,· analy­ sis of covariance buildings, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and success exams are developed and evaluated, and that attempt rankings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as great and critical as they've been, are just a fragment of the key alterations within the box of trying out. at the present time, for instance, the pc is appreciably chang­ ing the ways that checks are built, administered, and scored. desktops are getting used to manage exams "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run is determined by his or her functionality on prior administered goods within the try out. checks are "adapted" to the facility degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter checks with very little loss in dimension precision. pcs also are getting used to shop or financial institution try out goods. Later, goods of curiosity could be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.

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Berk, 1984a; Hambleton, 1990; Popham, 1978a); and there is a greater need for technical information among practitioners because of the wide use of criterion-referenced tests. It is worth repeating that the technology presented in this chapter, if followed carefully, can contribute substantially to the assessment of examinee knowledge and skills and the proper use of criterion-referenced test score information. At present, research is still under way on (1) methods for setting standards, (2) formats for reporting scores to maximize test score usefulness, and (3) approaches for describing objectives.

Items with very low or negative-valued discrimination indices should also be studied carefully for flaws. Readers are referred to Berk (1984b), Millman (1974), Popham (1978a), and van der Linden (1981) for discussions of additional item statistics and their usefulness in building criterion-referenced tests. The use of item analytic techniques is important in the contentvalidation process. In situations where at least a moderate-sized sample of examinees is available and where the test constructor is interested in identifying aberrant items, not for elimination from the item pool but for correction, the use of an empirical approach to item validation will provide important information with regard to the assessment of item validity.

A utility-based approach to the evaluation of pass/fail testing decision procedures (Report No. COPA-75-01). Princeton, NJ: Center for Occupational and Professional Assessment, Educational Testing Service. - - - - . (1976). Choosing minimum passing scores by stochastic approximation techniques (Report No. COPA-76-02). Princeton, NJ: Center for Occupational and Professional Assessment, Educational Testing Service. - - - - . (1989). New Jersey College Outcomes Evaluation Program: A report on the development of the general intellectual skills assessment.

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