A Dictionary Of Hallucinations by Jan Dirk Blom

By Jan Dirk Blom

The Dictionary of Hallucinations is an alphabetical directory of concerns concerning hallucinations and different misperceptions. they are often approximately divided into 5 categories:

1. Definitions of person hallucinatory symptoms
2. health conditions and ingredients linked to the mediation of hallucinations
3. Definitions of the phrases hallucination and phantasm via vital ancient authors
4. old figures who're recognized to have skilled hallucinations
5. Miscellaneous issues.

Each of the definitions of person hallucinatory signs includes:

* a definition of the term

* its etymological origin

* the yr of advent (if known)

* a connection with the writer or authors who brought the time period (if known)

* an outline of the present use

* a quick clarification of the etiology and pathophysiology of the symptom to hand (if known)

* references to comparable terms

* references to the literature.

Jan Dirk Blom, M.D., Ph.D., is a medical psychiatrist, focusing on the sphere of psychotic issues. He holds a Ph.D. from the Philosophy division of the collage of Leiden, at the deconstruction of the biomedical schizophrenia notion. he's presently curious about a collaborative venture with the college of Utrecht, on version dependent and version unfastened analyses of fMRI activation styles got from people with verbal auditory hallucinations, and an experimental therapy technique with fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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Nor are these high rates limited to psychiatric settings; at least one such report has come from a family practice clinic [114]. Moreover, according to Simpson et al [80], bipolar II disorder may represent the most common phenotype of bipolar disorder. The French National EPIDEP study [119], based on a sample from a variety of clinical settingsÐprivate and public, inpatient and outpatient, academic and general psychiatric sectorÐhave provided the most compelling data on the high prevalence of bipolar II disorder among patients with major depression.

In addition, the index depressive episode was further characterized by such features as phobic anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, somatization (with subpanic symptoms), worse in evening, self-pity, demandingness, subjective or overt anger, jealousy, suspiciousness, and ideas of referenceÐagain testifying to a broad meÂlange of ``atypical'' depressive symptoms with ``borderline'' taint. Temperamental attributes obtained at index interview proved decisive (sensitivity ˆ 91%) in identifying those who switched from depression to hypomania: these attributes consisted of trait ``mood lability'', ``energyactivity'', and ``daydreaming'' (all characteristic of Kretschmer's description of the cyclothymic temperament).

However, hyperthymic traits do precede manic episodes, and can be retrospectively examined. An excellent description of the biographical features of this temperamentÐbased on systematic chart review of manic patients in MunichÐis provided by Possl and von Zerssen [129]: vivid, active, extraverted; verbally aggressive, self-assured; strong-willed; self-employed; risk-taking; sensation-seeking; breaking social norms; generous and spendthrift. 9 The hyperthymic temperament (expanded from Akiskal and Mallya [23]) Four or more of the following attributes, which are not episode-bound and constitute part of the habitual long-term functioning of the individual: .

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